2. Dynamics of and Communication in Aerial Systems

Understanding and developing drones are passionate about a range of things. The aerodynamic shape of propellers, strength, and weight of drone parts, motor, electric speed controller, sender or receiver, and software interface on mobile or computer for monitoring and data analysis are all variables within the design of a drone for a particular use.
2.1 Forces Of Flight
When a drone moves within the air, various forces act thereon. The resultant force will decide its movement. There are major forces performing on a drone.
Forces of Flight
Fig. 2.1 Forces of Flight
Forces and Moments
Fig. 2.2: Forces and Moments
Each rotating propeller produces two reasonably forces. When a rotor rotates, it’s propeller produces upward thrust given by F=K_f * ω² (shown by forces F1, F2, F3 and F4 in Figure 2.2) where ω (omega) is rate of rotation of a rotor (radian/second). Many factors influence the constant K_f, including torque proportionality constant, back-EMF, density of surrounding air, area swept by propeller, and so on. The values for K_f and K_m (mentioned below) are generally found empirically. We mount the motor and propeller on a load cell and measure the force and moment for various motor speeds. Refer “System Identification of the Crazyflie 2.0 Nano Quadrocopter” by Julian Forster for details regarding measurement of K_f and K_m.

Total upward thrust generated by all 4 propellers is given by summing all individual thrusts generated, for i= 1 to 4 it’s given by
F_i = K_f * ω²

Forces on a flight in Fixed Wing UAV
Forces on Fixed-wing flight
Fig. 2.3: Forces on Fixed-wing flight
The above picture shows fundamental forces experienced by flight. Within the fixed-wing UAV, the lift is generated due to the airfoil section of wings. To stay the UAV on the wing condition to carry its altitude position the burden of the UAV must be supported by the lift forces generated by the wings.
2.1.1 Weight
Due to the mass of the drone, the body mass force always acts within the direction of gravity. Higher the burden of the drone, more power is required to lift and move the drone.

Weight of drone = mass of drone × acceleration thanks to gravity

2.1.2 Lift force
The vertical force performing on the drone is termed lift. This force is thanks to pressure differences across the drone (in the vertical direction). Hence, the speed, size, and shape of the propeller blade decide the number of lift force. Lift is important to lift the body against gravity. To make this force, all four propellers run at high speed to lift the drone.
Principle of Aerodynamic Lift
Fig. 2.4: Principle of Aerodynamic Lift
2.1.3 Drag force
The force functioning on the drone within the other way of motion because of air resistance is named drag. This might be due to pressure difference and viscosity of air. Drag may be a backwards horizontal force generated by resistance because the plane moves through the air. It’s one in every of the four aerodynamic forces of flight and is opposed by thrust. To cut back the drag, the aerodynamic shape of the drone is chosen. The subsequent equation gives the magnitude of the drag force.


Where, C is that the coefficient, which is dimensionless with values depending upon the form of the thing. (For example, C = 0.47 for a sphere and C = 0.82 for a protracted cylinder) ρf is that the density of the fluid. v is that the velocity of the thing.
Unit of drag force: Newton or N
Drag Force Equation
Fig. 2.5: Drag Force Equation
Drag is also a mechanical force. Drag is generated by the difference in velocity between the solid object and thus the fluid. There must be motion between the item and thus the fluid. If there is no motion, there isn’t any drag. It makes no difference whether the article moves through a static fluid or whether the fluid moves past a static solid object. Drag acts in an exceedingly direction that opposes the motion. (Lift acts perpendicular to the motion.)

Parasite Drag: It is caused by something about the aircraft’s materials, shape, or construction type that generates resistance. Parasite drag is unrelated to lift and might are available the form of skin friction drag, form drag, or interference drag.

Skin Friction Drag: Skin friction drag may well be a spread of parasite drag caused by rough spots on the skin of the plane. Anything that takes aloof from a clean, smooth, perfectly aerodynamic surface causes skin friction drag. Drag is taken into account as aerodynamic friction,and one in all the sources of drag is that the skin friction between the molecules of the air and so the solid surface of the aircraft. Because skin friction is an interaction between a solid and a gas,the magnitude of the skin friction depends on properties of both solid and gas. For the solid, a smooth, waxed surface produces less skin friction than a roughened surface. For the gas, the magnitude depends on the viscosity of the air and also the relative magnitude of the viscous forces to the motion of the flow, expressed because the Reynolds number. Along the solid surface, a natural phenomenon of low energy flow is generated. Also the magnitude of the skin friction depends on the state of this flow. Skin friction drag is one of the reasons why airplane deicing is a crucial step before you take off during winter weather conditions.

Form Drag / Pressure Drag: Form drag or pressure drag may be a form of parasite drag caused just by the general shape of the plane and the way that shape interacts with the airflow. As air flows around a body, the local velocity and pressure are changed. Since pressure may be a measure of the momentum of the gas molecules and a change in momentum produces a force, a varying pressure distribution will produce a force on the body. We are able to determine the magnitude of the force by integrating (or adding up) the local pressure times the expanse round the entire body. The component of the force that’s critical the motion is that the drag; the component perpendicular to the motion is that the lift. Both the lift and drag force act through the middle of pressure of the item. Some shapes are more aerodynamic than others, and therefore the more cleanly the plane slices through the air, the less drag it’ll create. this can be why small, sleek planes generate less drag than large, blunt ones or why after you put your gift a window and hold it parallel to the bottom you are feeling less resistance than if you hold it perpendicularly.

Interference Drag: As air flows round the aircraft, we regularly consider how it tracks over the wings but forget that it’s also interacting with other components just like the fuselage, wing struts, undercarriage struts, and more.

Profile Drag: Both form drag and interference drag relate to the scale, design, and configuration of your aircraft. Sometimes both varieties of drag are considered together because the overall profile drag of the airplane. The profile drag is that the amount of form drag plus the quantity of interference drag.

Lift-Induced Drag: Lift-induced drag is, because it sounds, a sort of drag that’s produced as a byproduct of lift. When higher pressure air from underneath the wings flows up and over the highest of the wing, this is often a source of lift induced drag. Wings with a lower ratio will generate more lift-induced drag than high ratio wings. Some aircraft are built with curved up wingtips known at winglets to assist reduce the quantity of lift-induced drag they generate.

Wave Drag: When a plane reaches supersonic velocity, the forefront of the wing is flying at supersonic speeds. This produces a shockwave that travels back past the edge of the wing which is flying at subsonic velocity. The shockwave causes the airflow to cut loose the edge of the wing thus creating wave drag.

The direction and speed of the airflow is altered by each of those components, therefore the redirected streams of airflow hit one another and their interaction produces additional drag adding to the already existing form drag. The entire amount of drag generated is bigger than it might be individually. Interference drag is greatest in areas with sharp angles like where the wing strut meets the fuselage or the underside of the wing additionally as where the wings themselves attach to the fuselage.

Airplane drag will be reduced during the aircraft designing phase by creating a smooth aircraft skin placed on a sleek, streamlined fuselage. A design that doesn’t require wing struts, undercarriage struts, and other numerous protrusions will lead to lower amounts of drag as will one with winglets or a high ratio.