1.3 Applications #
1.3.1 Agriculture #
An agricultural drone is an unmanned aerial vehicle that will help to optimize agricultural operations, increase crop production, and monitor crop growth. A farmer can get clear pictures of his fields with a drone supported by sensors and digital imaging capabilities. Agricultural drones let farmers to see their fields from the sky. This view captured by a drone can reveal many issues like irrigation problems, soil variation, and fungal infestations. The images shows the differences between healthy and unhealthy plants, a difference not always clearly visible to the eye. Thus, these views can assist in assessing crop growth and production. Additionally, the drone can be used for periodic survey of the crops which will be helpful for decision making for spraying pesticides. Weekly, daily, or perhaps hourly, pictures can show the changes within the crops over the time, thus showing possible “trouble spots”. After identifying and eliminating these trouble spots, the farmer can try to improve crop management and production.
• Aerial seeding could be a technique of sowing seeds by spraying them through aerial mechanical means like a drone, plane, or helicopter. It’s often used to spread different grasses and legumes to large areas of land that require vegetative cover after fires. Large wildfires can destroy large areas of plants leading to erosion hazards. Aerial seeding may quickly and effectively reduce erosion hazards and suppress the expansion of invasive plant species. It is an alternate to other seeding methods where the terrain is extremely rocky or at high elevations or otherwise inaccessible. The key advantage of aerial seeding is that the efficient coverage of an outsized area within the least of your time. Aerial seeding facilitates seeding in areas that otherwise would be impossible to seed with traditional methods, like land that’s too hard to succeed in by non-aircraft or far too wet ground conditions. Aerial seeding could also be used when existing crops are already planted.
• On 26th January 2022, the Government of India also released a certification scheme for agricultural drones, which might now carry a payload that doesn’t include chemicals or other liquids utilized in spraying drones. Such liquid is also sprayed by following applicable rules and regulations.
• Soil and field analysis: Agricultural drones are often used for soil and field analysis for efficient field planning. They’ll be accustomed mount sensors to gauge moisture content within the soil, terrain conditions, soil conditions, erosion, nutrients content, and fertility of the soil.
• Crop Monitoring: Crop surveillance is monitoring the progress of crops from the time seeds are sown until harvest. This includes applying fertilizer at an acceptable time, inspecting for pests, and monitoring the impact of weather. Crop surveillance is the only way for a farmer to make sure of a timely harvest, particularly with seasonal crops. Crop surveillance aids in the understanding and planning of the upcoming farming season. Drones can assist in effective crop surveillance by inspecting the sphere with infrared cameras, and farmers can take active measures to boost the condition of plants within the field supported by their real-time information.
• Plantation: Drones can help in planting trees and crops by saving labor and fuel.
• Livestock management: The high-resolution infrared cameras installed on the sensors of drones will be accustomed monitor and managing large livestock. Drones can detect a sick animal and take appropriate action. As a result, the impact of drones on precision agriculture will soon become the new normal.
• Crop Spraying: Agricultural drones can spray chemicals with the embedded reservoirs which will be stuffed with fertilizers and insecticides for spraying on crops in a fraction of the time which is very less than the traditional methods. As a result, drone technology has the potential to usher in a replacement era of precision agriculture.
• Check crop health: Farming may be a large-scale activity over thousands of acres of land. To test the health of the soil and therefore the crop that has been planted, regular surveys are required. Manually, this might take days, and even then, a human mistake is feasible. Drones can complete identical task in just some hours. Drones may acquire information about the health of the soil and therefore the crop using infrared mapping.
• Avoid overuse of chemicals: Effective reduction in the overdose of pesticides, insecticides, and other chemicals is feasible by using drones. The quantity and timing of spraying can be predefined and thus monitors the pesticides. This may protect the crop also. Drones can detect minute signs of pest attacks, and supply accurate data regarding the degree and range of the attack. This may help farmers calculate the desired amount of chemicals to be used that may only protect the crops instead of harming them.
• Prepare for weather glitches: Drones are often helped to detect upcoming atmospheric condition. Storm drones are already getting used to have better predictions. This information may be employed by farmers to be better prepared. Advanced notice of storms or lack of rain will be accustomed plan the crop to be planted that may be best suited to the season, and the way to require care of planted crops at a later stage.
• Monitor growth: Even when everything goes as planned, crops must be surveyed and monitored to ensure that the right quantity of yield is out there at harvest. It is also crucial for long-term planning, whether it’s finding the simplest open market pricing or harvesting cyclical crops. Drones can collect reliable data at every stage of crop development and alert farmers to any changes before they become a disaster. Multispectral imaging may also reveal minor distinctions between healthy and ill crops that are otherwise invisible to the eye. Stressed plants, as an example, will reflect less near-infrared light than healthy plants. The human eye cannot always notice this difference where drones can help.
• Geofencing: Drones equipped with infrared cameras can readily detect animals or humans. As a result, drones can protect crops from animal damage, especially in the dead of night.
1.3.2 Architecture #
In the past, architects had to rely totally on hand-drawn bird’s eye view maps or sketches of properties for good images. When drones came into the limelight, lots of architectural photographers grabbed the chance and began using the unmanned aerial vehicle for photographing their subjects. With drones, architectural firms and their clients not have to hire helicopter services or find the right position for getting the correct angle. They simply delegate the task to the drone
and therefore the professional photographer.
Some of the foremost significant benefits of using drones are as follows:
• Drones offer versatility: Drones are small so that they can fly over as many areas as possible, even the hard-to-reach ones. Additionally, they will penetrate areas that are difficult to navigate and therefore the smartest thing about these is that drones can pan, get close-ups, take continuous shots, and even perfectly frame a subject matter.
• Drones have very Minimal noise: Unlike helicopters, drones are quiet. They are doing not have an important buzzing or whirring sound. As such, they’ll take good close-up shots of the house, building, or property. Since drones are quiet, they’ll be wont to take architectural and realty photos of exclusive neighborhoods or areas where silence may be
• Drones offer Flexibility to use in Architectural Photography: In architectural and assets photography, drones may be utilized in a wide range.
First it is applied for site planning before the particular construction starts. Photographers can make 3D maps using drones.
• Drones can be used to monitor construction progress.
• Drones can be used to capture high-resolution images of the completed project for a variety of purposes, but primarily for sales and marketing.
1.3.3 Delivery #
The significant deployment of drones in the logistics business has ushered in a new era of drone application. Organizations such as Amazon, UPS, DHL, and different drone delivery startups have already established various experimental settings in the Medical and Healthcare sectors. UAVs can transfer medicines and vaccinations, as well as retrieve medical samples, into and out of inaccessible areas.
• Food Deliveries
Early prototypes of food-delivery drones include the Tacocopter demonstration by Star Simpson, which was a taco delivery concept utilizing a smartphone app to order drone-delivered tacos within the San Francisco area. Marriott International used drones to deliver cocktails and drinks to the tables of guests at multiple properties in 2017 including the Marriott Marquis Hotel in Chicago,IL. The hotel chain formed a partnership with DJI in 2016 and used the company’s drones for its indoor drink delivery.
• Postal Deliveries
Different postal companies from Australia, Switzerland, Germany, Singapore, and Ukraine have undertaken various drone trials as they test the feasibility and profitability of unmanned delivery drone services. The USPS has been testing delivery systems with Horsefly Drones.
1.3.4 Drones as a Service #
The drones as a service (DaaS) concept has emerged to provide the services to a variety of unmanned aerial vehicles instead of launching a single drone to complete a single mission. Several different technologies and processes have to be integrated into an IT service provider to establish such a service. These are drone technology, network security, and infrastructure as well as the processes that are required to operate fleets of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The progress in science and the adaption of the legal conditions for the operation of unmanned aerial vehicles to
commercial requirements opens new vistas toward an automated end-to-end scenario for a managed IT service delivery. Such a delivery means operating drones in a cost-efficient way. Currently, the commercial use of mini and micro-drones is still strongly restricted if not generally forbidden. However, authorities in many countries work on regulations that are intended to enable commercial use of drone-based IT services as well as to limit the danger that UAVs may represent
to people when not properly controlled.
In the future, we may expect the service providers to offer drones as service products in a modular and extensible way to be able to adapt to the service delivery types of customers (i.e. B2B, B2C, associates, single customers, etc.) Such a modular design would enable service providers to offer a drone as a service in a diverse number of regions under various legal conditions. In contrast to today’s conventional drone-operation method, where each mission of a UAV is treated as a separate project, requiring one or more persons to come to the site in person to set up the UAV and complete the actual mission, a DaaS is managed centrally to a large extent. A DaaS would also be based on specialized companies that provide this service model that allows exercising central control of one or more sets of drones by a limited and therefore economically justifiable number of human controllers. The necessary legal and technical preconditions for scenarios of this kind are currently under development.
1.4 CATEGORY OF ZONES #
The Drone Rules 2021 associated airspace maps classify Indian airspace into three zones as follows:
• “Red Zone” means the airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or water of India, or any installation or notified port limits specified by the Central Government beyond the body of water of India, within which unmanned aircraft system operations shall be permitted only by the Central Government.
• “Yellow Zone” means the airspace of defined dimensions above the land areas or water of India within which unmanned aircraft system operations are restricted and shall require permission from the concerned traffic control authority. The airspace above 400 feet or 120 meters within the designated green zone and therefore the airspace above 200 feet or 60 meters within the area located between the lateral distance of 8 kilometers and 12 kilometers from the perimeter of an operational airport, shall be designated as a yellow zone.
• “Green Zone” means the airspace of defined dimensions above the land areas or body of water of India, up to a vertical distance of 400 feet or 120 meters that haven’t been designated as a red zone or yellow zone within the airspace map for unmanned aircraft system operations and also the airspace up to a vertical distance of 200 feet or 60 meters
above the realm located between a lateral distance of 8 kilometers and 12 kilometers from the perimeter of an operational airport.
1.5 CLASSIFICATION #
There are two main types of drones in use today
Military drones – these are UAVs primarily used for military actions such as surveillance and remote targeting
Personal drones – these UAVs are used for commercial and recreational use, primary for aerial videography and photography, besides other such uses as drone racing
Drone Categories in India According to the Ministry of Civil Aviation Notification Drones are classified as follows:
The unmanned aircraft system shall be categorized into the following three categories, namely:––
• Hybrid unmanned aircraft system.
The airplane, rotorcraft, and hybrid unmanned aircraft system shall be further sub-categorized as
• remotely piloted aircraft system
• model remotely piloted aircraft system
• Autonomous unmanned aircraft system
Classification of unmanned aircraft systems.— The unmanned aircraft system shall, based on the maximum all-up weight including payload, be classified as follows:–––
“Drones” can be categorized in various ways, based on ‘use,’ such as Drones for Photography, Drones for Aerial Mapping, Drones for Surveillance, and so on. However, the best classification of ‘Drones’ is based on aerial platforms. There are four major categories of drones based on the type of aerial platform used.