1. Basics Of Drones

1.1 Definition Of Drone

A drone, in technical terms, is defined as an unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) or Unmanned Aerial system. Drones are flying machines that may be controlled either remotely or autonomously for flight plans using embedded systems in conjunction with onboard sensors and GPS. It’s a flying robot. A drone is an unmanned aircraft or ship that may navigate autonomously, without human control, or beyond the line of sight. “An unmanned aircraft or ship guided by remote or onboard computers.” – Merriam Webster.
1.2 History
Drones, which were originally designed for military use, have seen fast growth and advancements and have made their way into consumer gadgets. Their initial application was as weapons, within the sort of remotely guided aerial missile deployers. However, drones have found a large range of civilian applications, particularly within the sort of small quadcopters and octocopters.

Drones are now used for a range of purposes, including monitoring temperature change, delivering goods, assisting in search and rescue operations, and filming and photography.

The earliest recorded use of an unmanned aerial vehicle for warfighting occurred in July 1849,serving as a balloon carrier (the precursor to the aircraft carrier) within the first offensive use of airpower in naval aviation.

Control was achieved using gyroscopes developed by Elmer Sperry of the Sperry Gyroscope Company. Later, in November 1917, the automated Airplane was flown for representatives of the army. This led the military to commission a project to make an “aerial torpedo”, leading to the Kettering Bug which first flew in 1918. While the Bug’s revolutionary technology was successful,it had been not in time to fight within the war, which ended before it may be fully developed and deployed.

A summary of the history of drones – Timeline

1782The Montgolfier brothers in France use unmanned balloons
1806Kites were flown from the HMS Pallas scattering propaganda pamphlets over parts of France
1848Austria mounts bombs on 200 pilotless balloons as a part of a secret attack against Venice
1862A patent for a flying machine that may hold bombs was lodged in Massachusetts
1898American soldiers use a kite with a camera attached thereto for reconnaissance during the Spanish-American War, Tesla demonstrates the Automaton at Madison Square Garden
1911The Italians use drones once they attacked Libya
1940The GB-1 Glide Bomb was designed to bypass German air defence, carrying a deadly 2000 pound bomb
1960Lightning bug and Ryan Firebee were used as remote combat aircraft
1960Lightning bugs were employed in wars including Vietnam in additional than 3500 combat incidents
1974Abe Karem develops the Amber, nicknamed the Predator
1986Israel and therefore the American military started using the Pioneer
1991At least one UAV was airborne in the least times
1993Monitoring of climate and environment using drones
1999Predators are used for surveillance and combat in Kosovo, Afghanistan, and other war zones
2007The Reaper, utilized in combat missions in Iraq and Afghanistan
2014Popularity explosion and general use of drones as tech toys, US military UAV budget set at ~$24Bn
2016Consumer drone popularity is at all-time high, drones in near-misses with commercial aircraft
2017Legalities and ethics are within the foreground as drones keep getting popular
1.3 Applications
1.3.1 Agriculture
An agricultural drone is an unmanned aerial vehicle that will help to optimize agricultural operations, increase crop production, and monitor crop growth. A farmer can get clear pictures of his fields with a drone supported by sensors and digital imaging capabilities. Agricultural drones let farmers to see their fields from the sky. This view captured by a drone can reveal many issues like irrigation problems, soil variation, and fungal infestations. The images shows the differences between healthy and unhealthy plants, a difference not always clearly visible to the eye. Thus, these views can assist in assessing crop growth and production. Additionally, the drone can be used for periodic survey of the crops which will be helpful for decision making for spraying pesticides. Weekly, daily, or perhaps hourly, pictures can show the changes within the crops over the time, thus showing possible “trouble spots”. After identifying and eliminating these trouble spots, the farmer can try to improve crop management and production.

• Aerial seeding could be a technique of sowing seeds by spraying them through aerial mechanical means like a drone, plane, or helicopter. It’s often used to spread different grasses and legumes to large areas of land that require vegetative cover after fires. Large wildfires can destroy large areas of plants leading to erosion hazards. Aerial seeding may quickly and effectively reduce erosion hazards and suppress the expansion of invasive plant species. It is an alternate to other seeding methods where the terrain is extremely rocky or at high elevations or otherwise inaccessible. The key advantage of aerial seeding is that the efficient coverage of an outsized area within the least of your time. Aerial seeding facilitates seeding in areas that otherwise would be impossible to seed with traditional methods, like land that’s too hard to succeed in by non-aircraft or far too wet ground conditions. Aerial seeding could also be used when existing crops are already planted.
Aerial Seeding using Drone
Fig. 1.1: Aerial Seeding using Drone
On 26th January 2022, the Government of India also released a certification scheme for agricultural drones, which might now carry a payload that doesn’t include chemicals or other liquids utilized in spraying drones. Such liquid is also sprayed by following applicable rules and regulations.

• Soil and field analysis: Agricultural drones are often used for soil and field analysis for efficient field planning. They’ll be accustomed mount sensors to gauge moisture content within the soil, terrain conditions, soil conditions, erosion, nutrients content, and fertility of the soil.

• Crop Monitoring: Crop surveillance is monitoring the progress of crops from the time seeds are sown until harvest. This includes applying fertilizer at an acceptable time, inspecting for pests, and monitoring the impact of weather. Crop surveillance is the only way for a farmer to make sure of a timely harvest, particularly with seasonal crops. Crop surveillance aids in the understanding and planning of the upcoming farming season. Drones can assist in effective crop surveillance by inspecting the sphere with infrared cameras, and farmers can take active measures to boost the condition of plants within the field supported by their real-time information.

• Plantation: Drones can help in planting trees and crops by saving labor and fuel.

• Livestock management: The high-resolution infrared cameras installed on the sensors of drones will be accustomed monitor and managing large livestock. Drones can detect a sick animal and take appropriate action. As a result, the impact of drones on precision agriculture will soon become the new normal.

• Crop Spraying: Agricultural drones can spray chemicals with the embedded reservoirs which will be stuffed with fertilizers and insecticides for spraying on crops in a fraction of the time which is very less than the traditional methods. As a result, drone technology has the potential to usher in a replacement era of precision agriculture.

• Check crop health: Farming may be a large-scale activity over thousands of acres of land. To test the health of the soil and therefore the crop that has been planted, regular surveys are required. Manually, this might take days, and even then, a human mistake is feasible. Drones can complete identical task in just some hours. Drones may acquire information about the health of the soil and therefore the crop using infrared mapping.

• Avoid overuse of chemicals: Effective reduction in the overdose of pesticides, insecticides, and other chemicals is feasible by using drones. The quantity and timing of spraying can be predefined and thus monitors the pesticides. This may protect the crop also. Drones can detect minute signs of pest attacks, and supply accurate data regarding the degree and range of the attack. This may help farmers calculate the desired amount of chemicals to be used that may only protect the crops instead of harming them.

• Prepare for weather glitches: Drones are often helped to detect upcoming atmospheric condition. Storm drones are already getting used to have better predictions. This information may be employed by farmers to be better prepared. Advanced notice of storms or lack of rain will be accustomed plan the crop to be planted that may be best suited to the season, and the way to require care of planted crops at a later stage.

• Monitor growth: Even when everything goes as planned, crops must be surveyed and monitored to ensure that the right quantity of yield is out there at harvest. It is also crucial for long-term planning, whether it’s finding the simplest open market pricing or harvesting cyclical crops. Drones can collect reliable data at every stage of crop development and alert farmers to any changes before they become a disaster. Multispectral imaging may also reveal minor distinctions between healthy and ill crops that are otherwise invisible to the eye. Stressed plants, as an example, will reflect less near-infrared light than healthy plants. The human eye cannot always notice this difference where drones can help.

• Geofencing: Drones equipped with infrared cameras can readily detect animals or humans. As a result, drones can protect crops from animal damage, especially in the dead of night.
1.3.2 Architecture